Immunology Articles

Targeting sphingolipid metabolism enhances cancer immunotherapy

CTLA-4 and PD-1 based immunotherapies have demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in melanoma patients, but many patients remain non-responsive and relapse is common. To try and improve the response rate, researchers are currently working to develop innovative...

What are Immune Checkpoints?

What are Immune Checkpoints? Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system which prevent the immune system from attacking self-antigens indiscriminately. While this is critical to preventing auto-immune disease it also causes the immune system to be...

Prophylactic treatment with antagonistic anti-TNFα antibodies may improve outcomes of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 combination cancer immunotherapy

The combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibody-mediated immunotherapy is remarkably effective against melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small-cell lung cancer. However, this comes at the cost of frequent, serious immune-related adverse events. Colitis is...

Immune Checkpoints and Co-stimulators

Facilitate Your Immune Regulations StudyThe recognition of the antigenic peptide-MHC I/II complex on antigen presenting cells (APCs) through the T cell receptor (TCR) initiates T cell-mediated immunity. However, the interaction of antigen-MHC complexes with the TCR is...