Organoid models include three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems that closely resemble in vivo organ or tissue. These 3D systems reproduce the complex spatial morphology of a differentiated tissue to allow biologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, ideally, sharing similar physiological responses with in vivo differentiated tissues.

The major focus of future organoid studies, beside the study of developmental processes, will most likely be in drug testing and disease modeling, such as developmental disorders, genetic conditions, cancer and degenerative disorders.

The hope is that organoids are another step in the long way towards in vitro construction of tissues and organs for transplantation in patients.

Kidney Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
References

Xia Y. et al. (2014) Nature Protocols. 9:2693.
Xia Y. et al. (2013) Nature Cell Biology. 15:1507.
Takasato M. et al. (2014) Nat. Cell Biol. 16:118

Brain Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
References

Lancaster M.A. and J. A. Knoblich (2014) Nat. Protocols.
9:2329
Mariani J. et al. (2015) Cell. 162:375
Li Y. et al. (2017) Cell Stem Cell 20:1

Inner Ear Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
Small Molecules
References

Koehler K.R. and E. Hashino (2014) Nat. Protocols. 9:1229.

Immuno Germinal Center-like Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
Small Molecules
  • None
References

Purwada A. and Singh A. (2017) Nat. Protocols. 12:168

Retina Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
References

Nakano T. et al. (2012) Cell stem cell. 10: 771

Mammary Organoids

Small Molecules
References

Jardé T.et al. (2016) Nat. Commun. 7: 13207
Jamieson PR. et al. (2016) Develompent. :dev-145045

Stomach Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
Small Molecules
  • Y 27632
  • A 83-01
  • Nicotinamide
  • SB 202190
  • Gastrin
References

Mahe M. et al. (2013) Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 3:217
Sato T. and H. Clevers (2015) Cell. 161:1700
Bartfeld S. et al. (2015) Gastroenterology. 148:126

Small Intestinal and Colonic Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
References

Mahe M. et al. (2013) Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 3:217
Sato T. et al. (2011) Gastroenterology. 141:1762
Sato T. and H. Clevers (2015) Cell. 161:1700
Sato T. and H. Clevers (2009) Nature. 459:262
Jung P. et al. (2011) Nature Medicine. 17:1225

Liver Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
References

Mahe M. et al. (2013) Curr. Protoc. Mouse Biol. 3:217
Sato T. and H. Clevers (2015) Cell. 161:1700
Bartfeld S. et al. (2015) Gastroenterology. 148:126

Pancreatic Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
Small Molecules
References

Sato T. and H. Clevers (2015) Cell. 161:1700
Boj S.F. et al. (2015) Cell. 160:324.
Broutier L. et al. (2016) Nature Protocols. 11:1724

Prostate Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
References

Karthaus W.R. et al. (2014) Cell. 159:163.
Drost J. et al (2016) Nat. Protocols. 11:347

Lung Organoids

Proteins & Growth Factors
Small Molecules
References

Dye B.R. et al. (2015) eLIFE. 4:e05098