Science Advance has recently published a research article discussing how the PDL1-PD1 immune checkpoint inhibits T cell activation. Checkpoint immunotherapy is known to be a revolutionizing treatment for previously refractive tumors. However, researchers had found that only a portion of patients responded, and some responders gained resistance.

In the article, researchers were inspecting how checkpoints were hijacked by cancer cells and why most patients were remaining resistant to immunotherapy.

Multiple factors linked to resistance are being found:

      • M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)

      • Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)

      • Zeb1 transcription factor


Yongqing Liu, Douglas C. Dean, Yan Guo, Xiaoqin Lu, Yao Chen, Beatriz Rendon, Robert A. Mitchell, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Marlies Cortés, Antonio Postigo. Zeb1 induces immune checkpoints to form an immunosuppressive envelope around invading cancer cells. Science Advances. 2021 May 21; 7(21). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abd7455

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